If you’re a Linux user, you’re likely familiar with the many commands that are available to you.
These commands can be used to do everything from managing files and directories, to working with text files, to monitoring system performance.
In this blog post, we’ll take a look at 200+ of the most useful Linux commands.
We’ll also discuss how to use them, and provide some examples on how they can be used in real-world scenarios. So, if you’re looking to learn more about Linux commands, read on!
200+ Basic Linux Commands listed (alphabetically) with examples:
- admin Command
- alias Command
- apt Command
- ar Command
- asa Command
- at Command
- awk Command
- basename Command
- bash Command
- batch Command
- bc Command
- bg Command
- break Command
- c99 Command
- cal Command
- cat Command
- cd Command
- cflow Command
- chgrp Command
- chmod Command
- chown Command
- chroot Command
- cksum Command
- clear Command
- cmp Command
- comm Command
- command Command
- compress Command
- continue Command
- cp Command
- crontab Command
- csplit Command
- ctags Command
- cut Command
- cxref Command
- datamash Command
- date Command
- dc Command
- dd Command
- delta Command
- df Command
- diff Command
- dir Command
- dirname Command
- dot Command
- du Command
- echo Command
- ed Command
- env Command
- eval Command
- ex Command
- exec Command
- exit Command
- expand Command
- export Command
- expr Command
- false Command
- fc Command
- fg Command
- file Command
- find Command
- flex Command
- fold Command
- fort77 Command
- fortune Command
- ftp Command
- fuser Command
- gawk Command
- gencat Command
- get Command
- getconf Command
- getopts Command
- grep Command
- groupadd Command
- groupdel Command
- groups Command
- hash Command
- head Command
- history Command
- hostname Command
- htop Command
- iconv Command
- id Command
- iostat Command
- ipcrm Command
- ipcs Command
- jobs Command
- join Command
- kill Command
- last Command
- less Command
- lex Command
- link Command
- ln Command
- locale Command
- localedef Command
- locate Command
- logger Command
- login Command
- logname Command
- logout Command
- lp Command
- ls Command
- m4 Command
- mailx Command
- make Command
- man Command
- mesg Command
- mkdir Command
- mkfifo Command
- mktemp Command
- more Command
- mount Command
- mtail Command
- mv Command
- nano Command
- netstat Command
- newgrp Command
- nice Command
- nl Command
- nm Command
- nohup Command
- od Command
- parallel Command
- passwd Command
- paste Command
- patch Command
- pathchk Command
- pax Command
- pgrep Command
- ping Command
- pkill Command
- pr Command
- print Command
- printf Command
- prs Command
- ps Command
- pstree Command
- pwd Command
- qalter Command
- qdel Command
- qhold Command
- qmove Command
- qmsg Command
- qrerun Command
- qrls Command
- qselect Command
- qsig Command
- qstat Command
- qsub Command
- read Command
- readlink Command
- readonly Command
- renice Command
- return Command
- rm Command
- rmdel Command
- rmdir Command
- rsync Command
- sact Command
- sar Command
- sccs Command
- sed Command
- seq Command
- set Command
- sh Command
- shift Command
- shopt Command
- sleep Command
- sort Command
- split Command
- ss Command
- stress Command
- strings Command
- strip Command
- stty Command
- suspend Command
- tabs Command
- tail Command
- talk Command
- tee Command
- test Command
- time Command
- times Command
- top Command
- touch Command
- tput Command
- tr Command
- traceroute Command
- trap Command
- true Command
- ts Command
- tsort Command
- tty Command
- type Command
- ulimit Command
- umask Command
- umount Command
- unalias Command
- uname Command
- uncompress Command
- unexpand Command
- unget Command
- uniq Command
- unlink Command
- unset Command
- unzip Command
- uptime Command
- useradd Command
- userdel Command
- uucp Command
- uudecode Command
- uuencode Command
- uustat Command
- uux Command
- val Command
- vi Command
- w Command
- wait Command
- wc Command
- what Command
- whereis Command
- which Command
- who Command
- write Command
- xargs Command
- yacc Command
- zcat Command
- zip Command
1. admin Command
admin command is a source code control system command, used to create and administer SCCS files.
Some examples admin of Command:
2. alias Command
alias command instructs the shell to replace one string with another string while executing the commands.
Some examples of alias Command:
To print all aliases
unalias [alias name]
Create new aliases
alias [alias name]
3. ar Command
ar command is used to create, modify and extract the files from archives. r syntax is used to create archive files, while q is used to delete archive files.
Some examples of ar Command:
Ar command follows this
ar [OPTIONS] archive_name member_files
Lets say you have an ssl certificate yesterblog.crt that you want to put in an archive folder you want to create with ar command, named certificates. You use the command below.
ar r yesterblog.crt *certificates
4. apt Command
apt is a command-line utility for installing, updating, removing, and otherwise managing deb packages on unix
Some examples of apt Command:
To update files on your server use the command below. Choose appropraite command, depending on whether you are logged in as root or sudo.
sudo apt update
To download upgrade files from repository automatically, use the commands below, depending on whether you are root or sudo.
sudo apt-get upgrade
To update downloaded upgrades.
sudo apt upgrade
5. asa Command
The asa command asa writes its input files to standard output,
Some examples of asa Command:
To view file (created by a program using FORTRAN-style carriage-control characters) on a terminal.
formats the FORTRAN output of b.out and directs it to the printer.
b.out | asa | lp
6. at Command
at command is a command-line utility that is used to schedule a command to be executed at a particular time in the future. at Command is similar to cron job.
Unlike cron, at command does the job once, not repeatedly like cron.
Before you can use at command, you need to install the at command on your server, be it ubuntu or centos.
To install at command on ubuntu depending on sudo or root user.
apt-get install at
sudo apt-get install at
To install at command on centos, depending on sudo or root user.
yum install at
sudo yum install at
Some examples of at Command:
To view all at pending at commands
sudo at -l
Schedule a job to run on the coming Friday.
Schedule a job to run on the coming Friday, 50 minutes later.
at Friday +50 minutes
Schedule a job to run on a particular date and time, lets say 14th February 2022, 4:55pm
at 4:55pm 021422
Schedule system shutdown 5 hrs from now.
echo "shutdown -h now" | at now +5hrs
To delete an at command,
use the command below to list all running at commands and get the job number on the list.
Use any command below to delete at command.
at -r [job number]
atrm [job number]
7. awk Command
awk Command is used for generating reports and data manipulation. awk command can also be used for arithmetic and string operations, and conditionals and loops.
awk command can format output lines, and transform data files to produce formatted reports.
Also, it can be used to scan file line by line, perform actions on matched lines, and split each input line into fields.
Lets say you have a .txt file on your server called users.txt, and you wanted to print out the content of the .txt file, you can use awk command.
Some examples of awk Command:
awk 'print' users.txt
yester ceo account 60606 blog worker account 3029 ordinary sales 540404
8. basename Command
basename Command prints the last element of a file path.
Some examples of basename Command:
9. bash Command
The bash command is a command line interface for the GNU operating system. It is a shell that provides both interactive and non-interactive use.
The bash command has been around since the early days of Unix, but it was not until Version 4.0 that it became widely used.
The bash command is often used to automate tasks in Linux and Unix-like operating systems, such as running a program or script at regular intervals, sending commands to another computer on a network, or updating files with another computer on the network.
Some examples of bash Command:
bash [options] [file]
10. batch Command
batch Command similar to htop command, is used to read commands from standard input or a specified file and execute them when system load levels permit
To use batch Command, type batch in command line:
11. bc Command
bc Command also known as basic calculator command, is a command used to do basic arithmetic calculations. some of its options
- h (help) – get help
- i (interactive) : Enforce interactive mode
- l (mathematics library or mathlib) : Define standard math library
- w (warn) : Give warnings to POSIX bc
- s (standard) : process exactly the POSIX bc language
- q (quiet) Stop showing welcome print
- v (version) : Show bc calculator version
basic calculator command supports many types of calculations:
- Arithmetic operators
- Increment or Decrement operators
- Assignment operators
- Comparison or Relational operators
- Logical or Boolean operators
- Math functions
- Conditional statements
- Iterative statements
Some examples of bc Command:
12. bg Command
bg Command is used to restart suspended processes. It is a linux shell job controll command.
Some examples of bg Command:
13. break Command
break command is used to terminate the execution of loops:
- for loop
- while loop
- until loop.
Some examples of break Command:
14. c99 Command
c99 Command Calls the C compiler (cc) with the given options , using a C language environment compatible with the -ansiC specification.
Some examples of c99 Command:
15. cal Command
cal is a command-line utility used to print out calendar in the terminal.
Some examples of cal Command:
16. cat Command
cat command allows us to create single or multiple files, view content of a file, concatenate files and redirect output in terminal or files.
Some examples of cat Command:
17. cd Command
cd Command (chdir or change directory command) is a file system command used to change working directory on terminal.
Also, it can be used in shell scripts and batch files.
Some examples of cd Command:
18. cflow Command
cflow Command analyzes the C, C++, yacc, lex, assembler, and object files and writes a chart of their external references to standard output.
Some examples of cflow Command:
19. chgrp Command
The chgrp Command is a command that can be used to change the group ownership of a file or directory.
The chgrp Command is used to change the group ownership of a file or directory. It can be used to change the group ownership of files and directories in Linux, Mac OS X, and Unix-like operating systems.
The chgrp Command is also known as “chmod” in Unix-like operating systems.
Some examples of chgrp Command:
20. chmod Command
The chmod Command, is used to give or change file permissions on linux, using either a symbolic or numeric mode or a reference file.
Some examples of chmod Command:
21. chown Command
chown command, an abbreviation of change owner, is used on Unix and Unix-like operating systems to change the owner of file system files, directories.
Some examples of chown Command:
22. chroot Command
chroot Command, also known as change root command, is used to change the root directory
Some examples of chroot Command:
23. cksum Command
cksum Command (check sum Command), is a command that generates a checksum value for a file or stream of data.
Some examples of cksum Command:
24. clear Command
clear Command is used to clean the terminal of previous inputted and outputted data.
Some examples of clear Command:
25. cmp Command
cmp Command (compare Command), is used to compares two files of any type and writes the results to the standard output.
Some examples of cmp Command:
26. comm Command
Similar to cmp Command, the comm Command (compare Command), is a utility that is used to compare two files for common and distinct lines. comm is specified in the POSIX standard.
Some examples of comm Command:
27. command Command
Run a command – ignoring shell functions
Some examples of command Command:
28. compress Command
The compress command is a new feature in the latest version of the Linux kernel. It compresses files and folders by removing unnecessary data.
The compress command is a new feature in the latest version of the Linux kernel. It compresses files and folders by removing unnecessary data. The compression ratio can be controlled with a number of options, such as -z option which will reduce file size by 50% without losing any information, or -9 option which will reduce file size by 90%.
The compress command can also be used to create archives that are compressed with gzip or bzip2 algorithms.
Some examples of compress Command:
29. continue Command
The continue command is a shell programming command that allows you to continue the current line of code.
It can be used in many different ways, such as continuing a loop or continuing an if statement.
The continue command is often used in loops and if statements.
Some examples of continue Command:
30. cp Command
cp Command (copy Command), is a file system command that can be used to copy text from one file to another.
The cp command is a very useful tool for programmers and developers. It can be used to copy text from one file to another, or even between two different files.
The cp command is also useful for copying text from the terminal into a file.
Some examples of cp Command:
31. crontab Command
Crontab is a command-line utility that allows users to schedule commands to be executed periodically. It can be used for scheduling tasks such as backups, sending email, and running scripts.
The crontab command can be used in Linux and Unix-like operating systems.
Some examples of crontab Command:
32. csplit Command
The csplit command is a powerful text proccessing tool that can be used to split a file into multiple files. It is often used by developers and programmers who need to split large files into smaller ones for easier management.
The csplit command can also be used in other ways, such as splitting text files into multiple smaller text files or splitting logfiles into smaller logs.
Some examples of csplit Command:
33. ctags Command
ctags Command is a C programming command, used to create a tags file.
Some examples of ctags Command:
34. cut Command
cut Command is a shell programming command used to cut out selected fields of each line of a file.
Some examples of cut Command:
35. cxref Command
cxref Command is a C programming category command used to generate a C-language program cross-reference table.
Some examples of cxref Command:
36. datamash Command
datamash is a command-line program which performs basic. numeric, textual and statistical operations on input textual data files.
Some examples of datamash Command:
37. date Command
date Command is used to write the date and time.
Some examples of date Command:
38. dc Command
dc command in a linux command, used to evaluate arithmetic expressions, and evaluates expressions in the form of a postfix expression.
Some examples of date Command:
39. dd Command
dd Command is a filesystem command, used to convert and copy a file.
Some examples of dd Command:
40. delta Command
delta Command is a source code control system command, used to make a delta (change) to a source code control system (SCCS) file
Some examples of delta Command:
41. df Command
df (disk free) Command is used to report and display the amount of available disk space for file systems on which the invoking user has appropriate read access.
Some examples of df Command:
42. diff Command
diff Command is a text processing command used to compare two files.
Some examples of diff Command:
43. dir Command
dir (directory) Command is a command in various computer operating systems used for computer file and directory listing.
Some examples of dir Command:
44. dirname Command
The dirname (directory name) Command is a type of dir (directory) Command. It is used to return the directory portion of a pathname
Some examples of dirname Command:
45. dot Command
dot Command is a shell programming Command, used to execute commands in the current environment.
Some examples of dot Command:
46. du Command
du Command is a filesystem Command, used to estimate file space usage.
Some examples of du Command:
47. echo Command
echo Command is a shell programming command that outputs the strings that are passed to it as arguments, in standard output.
Some examples of echo Command:
48. ed Command
ed Command is a text processing Command, used to launch the ed standard text editor.
Some examples of ed Command:
49. env Command
env Command is used to list environment variables or invoke a command in a modified environment.
Some examples of env Command:
50. eval Command
eval Command is a shell programming Command is construct command by concatenating arguments.
Some examples of eval Command:
51. ex Command
ex Command is a text editor, and the line-editor mode of vi.
Some examples of ex Command:
52. exec Command
exec command is used for manipulating file-descriptors (FD), creating output and error logging within scripts with a minimal change.
Some examples of exec Command:
53. exit Command
exit Command is a shell programming Command used to cause the shell to exit.
Some examples of exit Command:
54. expand Command
expand command is a text processing Command used to extract a single file or a group of files from a compressed file.
Some examples of expand Command:
55. export Command
export Command is used to set the export attribute for variables.
Some examples of export Command:
56. expr Command
expr Command is a shell programming Command, used to valuate arguments as an expression.
Some examples of expr Command:
57. false Command
false Command is a shell programming Command, used to return false value.
Some examples of false Command:
58. fc Command
fc Command is used to process the command history list
Some examples of fc Command:
59. fg Command
fg (fore ground) Command is a process management Command, used to run jobs in the foreground.
Some examples of fg Command:
60. file Command
file Command is a filesystem Command used to determine file type.
Some examples of file Command:
61. find Command
find Command is a filesystem Command used to find files.
Some examples of find Command:
62. flex Command
flex Command is a C programming command, used to generate programs for lexical tasks.
Some examples of flex Command:
63. fold Command
fold Command is a text processing command, used to filter for folding lines.
Some examples of fold Command:
64. fort77 Command
fort77 Command is a C Programming, for Fortran compiling.
Some examples of fort77 Command:
65. fortune Command
fortune Command is used to displays a random quotation.
Some examples of fortune Command:
66. ftp Command
ftp (file transfer protocol) Command is used for internet file transfer between machines or programs.
Some examples of ftp Command:
67. fuser Command
fuser Command is a process Management Command, used to list process IDs of all processes that have one or more files open.
Some examples of fuser Command:
68. gawk Command
gawk Command is a text processing Command used for pattern scanning and processing language, GNU’s version of awk.
Some examples of gawk Command:
69. gencat Command
gencat (generate catalogue) Command is used to generate a formatted message catalog.
Some examples of gencat Command:
70. get Command
get Command is a source code control system command used to the get version of a source code control system file.
Some examples of get Command:
71. getconf Command
getconf (get configuration) Command is used to get configuration values of installations.
Some examples of getconf Command:
72. getopts Command
getopts Command is a shell programming Command, used to parse utility options.
Some examples of getopts Command:
73. grep Command
grep Command is used to search for text pattern and strings, in a group of files.
Some examples of grep Command:
74. groupadd Command
groupadd Command is used to create and add a new group to terminal.
Some examples of groupadd Command:
75. groupdel Command
groupdel Command is used to delete an existing group from terminal.
Some examples of groupdel Command:
76. groups Command
groups Command is used to list groups a user belongs to
Some examples of groups Command:
77. hash Command
hash Command is used to remember or report utility locations.
Some examples of hash Command:
78. head Command
head Command is a text processing Command used to copy the first part of files.
Some examples of head Command:
79. history Command
history Command is used to show history of all commands ever used on a terminal.
Some examples of history Command:
80. hostname Command
hostname is a networking command used to show the system’s host name.
Some examples of hostname Command:
81. htop Command
htop Command does the same thing on terminal, which task manager does on windows. htop Command shows terminal processes in real time, and the amount of system resources they are consuming.
Some examples of htop Command:
82. iconv Command
iconv command converts the encoding of characters read from either standard input or the specified file from one coded character set to another and then writes the results to standard output.
Some examples of iconv Command:
83. id Command
id (identity) Command is used to return a users identity.
Some examples of id Command:
84. iostat Command
iostat Command is used to collect and show operating system storage input and output statistics.
Some examples of iostat Command:
85. ipcrm Command
ipcrm command removes one or more message queues, semaphore sets, or shared memory identifiers
Some examples of ipcrm Command:
86. ipcs Command
ipcs is a Unix and Linux command to list System V InterProcess Communication System’s API kernel entities to stdout. It also report interprocess communication facilities status.
Some examples of ipcs Command:
87. jobs Command
jobs Command display status of jobs in the current session
Some examples of jobs Command:
88. join Command
join command provides us with the ability to merge two files together using a common field in each file as the link between related lines in the files.
Some examples of join Command:
89. kill Command
kill Command is a built-in command which is used to terminate processes.
Some examples of kill Command:
90. last Command
last command is used to displays information about the last logged-in users.
Some examples of last Command:
91. less Command
less Command is a Linux utility that can be used to read the contents of a text file one page(one screen) at a time.
Some examples of less Command:
92. lex Command
lex Command is a C programming command used to generate programs for lexical tasks.
Some examples of lex Command:
93. link Command
link Command is a filesystem utility used to call link function.
Some examples of link Command:
94. ln Command
ln Command is a filesystem command-line utility for creating links between files.
Some examples of ln Command:
95. locale Command
locale Command is a linux command used to get locale-specific information.
Some examples of locale Command:
96. localedef Command
localedef Command is used to define locale environment.
Some examples of localedef Command:
97. locate Command
locate command in Linux is used to find the files by name.
Some examples of locate Command:
98. logger Command
logger Command is a shell programming Command, used to log messages.
Some examples of logger Command:
99. login Command
login Command begins or initializes the user session environment from the user database, from the terminal.
Some examples of login Command:
100. logname Command
logname Command is used to return the user’s login name.
Some examples of logname Command:
101. logout Command
logout command allows you to logout from your current session.
Some examples of logout Command:
102. lp Command
lp Command is a text processing command used to send files to a printer.
Some examples of lp Command:
103. ls Command
ls Command is a filesystem Command used to list directory contents.
Some examples of ls Command:
104. m4 Command
m4 Command is used for macro processing.
Some examples of m4 Command:
105. mailx Command
mailx Command is a linux command used for process messages.
Some examples of mailx Command:
106. make Command
make Command is a shell programming utility used to maintain, update, and regenerate groups of programs.
Some examples of make Command:
107. man Command
man Command is used to display system documentation.
Some examples of man Command:
108. mesg Command
mesg Command is used to permit or deny messages.
Some examples of mesg Command:
109. mkdir Command
mkdir Command is a filesystem command, used make directories.
Some examples of mkdir Command:
110. mkfifo Command
mkfifo Command is a filesystem Command used to make FIFO special files.
Some examples of mkfifo Command:
111. mktemp Command
mktemp Command is a filesystem Command used to create a temporary file or directory.
Some examples of mktemp Command:
112. more Command
more Command displays files on a page-by-page basis
Some examples of more Command:
113. mount Command
mount Command is a filesystem command, used to mount a file system.
Some examples of mount Command:
114. mtail Command
mtail command, as the name implies, print the last N number of data of the given input.
Some examples of mtail Command:
115. mv Command
mv command that moves one or more files or directories from one place to another. If both filenames are on the same filesystem, this results in a simple file rename; otherwise the file content is copied to the new location and the old file is removed.
Some examples of mv Command:
116. nano Command
nano Command is a text Programming Command, used to display a small text editor.
Some examples of nano Command:
117. netstat Command
netstat Command is a networking Command, used to displays network information and statistics.
Some examples of netstat Command:
118. newgrp Command
newgrep Command is used to change to a new group.
Some examples of newgrp Command:
119. nice Command
nice Command is a process Management to invoke a utility with an altered nice value.
Some examples of nice Command:
120. nl Command
nl Command is a text processing Command used for line numbering filter.
Some examples of nl Command:
121. nm Command
nm Command is a C Programming, used write the name list of an object file.
Some examples of nm Command:
122. nohup Command
nohup Command is a process Management Command, used to invoke a utility immune to hangups.
Some examples of nohup Command:
123. od Command
od Command is used to dump files in various formats.
Some examples of od Command:
124. parallel Command
parallel Command is a shell utility for executing jobs in parallel.
Some examples of parallel Command:
125. passwd Command
passwd Command is a system Command used to set or change user password.
Some examples of passwd Command:
126. paste Command
paste Command is a text processing, used to merge corresponding or subsequent lines of files.
Some examples of paste Command:
127. patch Command
patch Command is a text processing utility to apply changes to files.
Some examples of patch Command:
128. pathchk Command
pathchk Command is a filesystem utility used to check pathnames.
Some examples of pathchk Command:
129. pax Command
pax Command is a portable archive interchange.
Some examples of pax Command:
130. pgrep Command
pgrep Command is a process Management used to find processes with the given name using pattern matching.
Some examples of pgrep Command:
131. ping Command
ping Command is a network administration software utility used to test the reachability of a host on an Internet Protocol network.
Some examples of ping Command:
132. pkill Command
pkill Command is a process Management utility used to kill processes with the given name using pattern matching.
Some examples of pkill Command:
133. pr Command
pr (print) Command is a text processing Command used to print files.
Some examples of pr Command:
134. print Command
print Command is used to print a file directly.
Some examples of print Command:
135. printf Command
printf Command is a shell programming utility, used to write formatted output.
Some examples of printf Command:
136. prs Command
prs Command is a Source Code Control System (SCCS) Command, used to print an SCCS file.
Some examples of prs Command:
137. ps Command
ps Command is a process Management utility, used to report process status.
Some examples of ps Command:
138. pstree Command
pstree Command is a process Management utility, used to display a tree of processes.
Some examples of pstree Command:
139. pwd Command
pwd Command is a filesystem utility used to print working directory or return working directory name.
Some examples of pwd Command:
140. qalter Command
qalter Command is a batch utility used to alter batch job
Some examples of qalter Command:
141. qdel Command
qdel Command is a batch utility used to delete batch job.
Some examples of qdel Command:
142. qhold Command
qhold Command is a batch utility used to hold batch jobs.
Some examples of qhold Command:
143. qmove Command
qmove Command is a batch utility used to move batch job.
Some examples of qmove Command:
144. qmsg Command
qmsg Command is a batch utility used to send message across batch jobs.
Some examples of qmsg Command:
145. qrerun Command
qrerun Command is a batch utility used to rerun batch jobs
Some examples of qrerun Command:
146. qrls Command
qrl Command is a batch utility used to release batch jobs
Some examples of qrls Command:
147. qselect Command
qselect Command is a batch utility used to select batch jobs
Some examples of qselect Command:
148. qsig Command
qsig Command is a batch utility used to signal batch jobs
Some examples of qsig Command:
149. qstat Command
qstat Command is a batch utility used to show status of batch jobs
Some examples of qstat Command:
150. qsub Command
qsub Command is a batch utility used to submit batch jobs script.
Some examples of qsub Command:
151. read Command
read Command is a shell Programming, used to read a line from standard input.
Some examples of read Command:
152. readlink Command
readlink Command is used to print resolved symbolic links or canonical file names.
Some examples of readlink Command:
153. readonly Command
readlink Command is used to set the readonly attribute for variables
Some examples of readonly Command:
154. renice Command
renice Command is a process Management utility used to set nice values of running processes.
Some examples of renice Command:
155. return Command
return Command is a shell Programming used to return from a function.
Some examples of return Command:
156. rm Command
rm Command is a filesystem utility, used to remove files or directories.
Some examples of rm Command:
157. rmdel Command
rmdel Command is a Source Code Control System (SCCS) utility, used to remove a delta from an SCCS file.
Some examples of rmdel Command:
158. rmdir Command
rmdir (remove directory) Command is a filesystem utility, used to remove a directory from linux.
Some examples of rmdir Command:
159. rsync Command
rsync Command is a fast and versatile command-line utility for synchronizing files and directories between two locations over a remote shell
Some examples of rsync Command:
160. sact Command
sact Command is a Source Code Control System (SCCS) utility, used to print current SCCS file-editing activity.
Some examples of sact Command:
161. sar Command
sar Command is a system administration utility, used for system activity report.
Some examples of sar Command:
162. sccs Command
sccs Command is a Source Code Control Utility (SCCS), used for front end for the SCCS subsystem.
Some examples of sccs Command:
163. sed Command
sed Command is a text processing utility, is a stream editor.
Some examples of sed Command:
164. seq Command
seq Command is used to print a sequence of numbers.
Some examples of seq Command:
165. set Command
set Command is a used to set or unset options and positional parameters.
Some examples of set Command:
166. sh Command
sh Command is a shell programming utility, used to shell, the standard command language interpreter.
Some examples of sh Command:
167. shift Command
shift Command is a shell programming utility, used to shift positional parameters.
Some examples of shift Command:
168. shopt Command
shopt Command is a shell programing utility, used to control optional shell behavior.
Some examples of shopt Command:
169. sleep Command
sleep Command is a shell programming utility, used to suspend execution for an interval.
Some examples of sleep Command:
170. sort Command
sort Command is a text processing utility used to sort, merge, or sequence check text files.
Some examples of sort Command:
171. split Command
split Command is used to split files into pieces.
Some examples of split Command:
172. ss Command
ss command is a linux utility used to displays information in similar fashion to netstat. Note that ss is a little crude compared to netstat.
Some examples of ss Command:
173. stress Command
stress Command is a shell programming testing utility, which uses a square-root function to force the CPUs to work hard.
Some examples of stress Command:
174. strings Command
strings Command is a C programming utility, used to find printable strings in files.
Some examples of strings Command:
175. strip Command
strip Command is a C programming utility, used to remove unnecessary information from executable files.
Some examples of strip Command:
176. stty Command
stty Command is used to set the options for a terminal.
Some examples of stty Command:
177. suspend Command
suspend Command is a shell programming utility, used to suspend execution of the shell until it receives a continue signal.
Some examples of suspend Command:
178. tabs Command
tabs Command is a linux utility, used to create tabs in terminal.
Some examples of tabs Command:
179. tail Command
tail Command is a text processing utility, used to copy the last part of a file.
Some examples of tail Command:
180. talk Command
talk Command is a linux utility, used to talk to another user.
Some examples of talk Command:
181. tee Command
tee Command is a shell programming utility, used to duplicate standard input.
Some examples of tee Command:
182. test Command
test Command is a Linux shell programming utility, used to evaluate expression, whether it is correct, before deployment.
Some examples of test Command:
183. time Command
time Command is a Linux process management utility, used to time the execution of a simple command.
Some examples of time Command:
184. times Command
times Command is a process management utility, used to write process execution times.
Some examples of times Command:
185. top Command
top Command is a process management utility, used to show real-time display of running processes.
Some examples of top Command:
186. touch Command
touch Command is a filesystem utility, used to create file and Change file access and modification times.
Some examples of touch Command:
187. tput Command
tput command allows shell scripts to do things like clear the screen, underline text, and center text no matter how wide the screen is.
Some examples of tput Command:
188. tr Command
tr (translate) Command is a text processing utility, used to translate characters.
Some examples of tr Command:
189. traceroute Command
traceroute command is used to determine the path between two connections.
Some examples of traceroute Command:
190. trap Command
trap Command is a process management utility, used to trap signals.
Some examples of trap Command:
191. true Command
true Command is a shell programming utility, used to return true value.
Some examples of true Command:
192. ts Command
ts command is to add timestamps to the beginning of each line of input.
Some examples of ts Command:
193. tsort Command
tsort Command is a text processing utility, used to topological sort files.
Some examples of tsort Command:
194. tty Command
tty Command is used to return user’s terminal name.
Some examples of tty Command:
195. type Command
type Command is used to displays how a name would be interpreted if used as a command.
Some examples of type Command:
196. ulimit Command
ulimit Command is used to set or report file size limit.
Some examples of ulimit Command:
197. umask Command
umask Command is used to get or set the file mode creation mask.
Some examples of umask Command:
198. umount Command
unmount Command is used to unmount a filesystem.
Some examples of umount Command:
199. unalias Command
unalias Command is used to remove aliases.
Some examples of unalias Command:
200. uname Command
uname Command is used to return system name.
Some examples of uname Command:
201. uncompress Command
uncompress Command is used to uncompress or expand compressed data.
Some examples of uncompress Command:
202. unexpand Command
unexpand Command is a text processing utility, used to convert spaces to tabs.
Some examples of unexpand Command:
203. unget Command
unget Command is a Source Code Command System (SCCS) utility, used to undo a previous get of an SCCS file.
Some examples of unget Command:
204. uniq Command
uniq Command is a text processing utility, used to report or filter out repeated lines in a file.
Some examples of uniq Command:
205. unlink Command
unlink Command is a filesystem utility used to call the unlink function.
Some examples of unlink Command:
206. unset Command
unset Command is used to unset values and attributes of variables and functions.
Some examples of unset Command:
207. unzip Command
unzip Command is a Linux processing utility, used to unzip files on a terminal.
Some examples of unzip Command:
208. uptime Command
uptime Command is a Linux command that returns information about how long your system has been running together with the current time, with basic users information.
Some examples of uptime Command:
209. useradd Command
useradd Command is used to create new user accounts.
Some examples of useradd Command:
210. userdel Command
userdel Command is used to delete create users.
Some examples of userdel Command:
211. uucp Command
uucp Command is a networking utility used for system-to-system copy.
Some examples of uucp Command:
212. uudecode Command
uudecode Command is a networking utility used to decode a binary files.
Some examples of uudecode Command:
213. uuencode Command
uuencode Command is a networking utility used to encode a binary files.
Some examples of uuencode Command:
214. uustat Command
uustat Command is a networking utility, used to uucp status inquiry and job control.
Some examples of uustat Command:
215. uux Command
uux Command is a process management utility, used for remote command execution.
Some examples of uux Command:
216. val Command
val Command is a Source Code Control System (SCCS) utility, used to validate SCCS files.
Some examples of val Command:
217. vi Command
vi Command is a text processing utility, used for screen-oriented (visual) display editor.
Some examples of vi Command:
218. w Command
w Command is used to show who is logged on and what they are doing.
Some examples of w Command:
219. wait Command
wait Command is a process management utility, used to await process completion.
Some examples of wait Command:
220. wc Command
wc Command is a text processing utility, used for word, line, and byte or character count
Some examples of wc Command:
221. what Command
what Command is a Source Code Control System (SCCS) utility, used to identify SCCS files
Some examples of what Command:
222. whereis Command
whereis command in Linux is used to locate the binary, source, and manual page files for a command.
Some examples of whereis Command:
223. which Command
which command in linux is used to identify the location of executables.
Some examples of which Command:
224. who Command
who Command is a system administration utility, used to display who is on the system.
Some examples of who Command:
225. write Command
write Command is used to write to another user’s terminal.
Some examples of write Command:
226. xargs Command
xargs Command is a shell programming used to construct argument lists and invoke utility.
Some examples of xargs Command:
227. yacc Command
yacc Command is a C programming utility, and stands for yet another compiler compiler. yacc command converts a context-free grammar specification into a set of tables for a simple automaton that executes an LALR(1) parsing algorithm.
Some examples of yacc Command:
228. zcat Command
zcat Command is a text processing utility, used to expand and concatenate data.
Some examples of zcat Command:
229. zip Command
zip Command is used to create zip file from archives, to manage data more easily, and reduce data coruption.
Some examples of zip Command:
Linux Command Cheat Sheet (Categories)
Since Linux commands are so many, this cheat sheet, outlines the various types of Linux commands in their categories.
Batch Utilities Commands
Basic Batch Utilities Commands:
- qalter Command – Alter batch job
- qdel Command – Delete batch jobs
- qhold Command – Hold batch jobs
- qmove Command – Move batch jobs
- qmsg Command – Send message to batch jobs
- qrerun Command – Rerun batch jobs
- qrls Command – Release batch jobs
- qselect Command – Select batch jobs
- qsig Command – Signal batch jobs
- qstat Command – Show status of batch jobs
- qsub Command – Submit a script
C Programming Commands
Basic C Programming Commands:
- c99 Command – Compile standard C programs
- cflow Command – Generate a C-language flowgraph
- ctags Command – Create a tags file
- cxref Command – Generate a C-language program cross-reference table
- flex Command – Generate programs for lexical tasks
- fort77 Command – w:FORTRAN compiler
- lex Command – Generate programs for lexical tasks
- nm Command – Write the name list of an object file
- strings Command – Find printable strings in files
- strip Command – Remove unnecessary information from executable files
- yacc Command – Yet another compiler compiler
Basic filesystem commands:
- basename Command – Return non-directory portion of a pathname
- cat Command – Concatenate and print files
- cd Command – Change the working directory
- chgrp Command – Change the file group ownership
- chmod Command – Change the file modes/attributes/permissions
- chown Command – Change the file ownership
- cksum Command – Write file checksums and sizes
- cmp Command – Compare two files
- compress Command – Compress data
- cp Command – Copy files
- dd Command – Convert and copy a file
- df Command – Report free disk space
- dirname Command – Return the directory portion of a pathname
- du Command – Estimate file space usage
- file Command – Determine file type
- find Command – Find files
- link Command – Call link function
- ln Command – Link files
- ls Command – List directory contents
- mkdir Command – Make directories
- mkfifo Command – Make FIFO special files
- mktemp Command – Create a temporary file or directory
- mount Command – Mount a file system
- mv Command – Move files
- pathchk Command – Check pathnames
- pwd Command – print working directory – Return working directory name
- rm Command – Remove files or directories
- rmdir Command – Remove directories
- touch Command – Create file and Change file access and modification times
- umount Command – Unmount a filesystem
- unlink Command – Call the unlink function
Input/Output information Command
Basic input/output information command:
- iostat Command – collect and show operating system storage input and output statistics
Basic internet command:
- ftp Command – Internet file transfer program
Network and Networking Commands
Basic networking commands:
- uucp Command – System-to-system copy
- uudecode Command – Decode a binary file
- uuencode Command – Encode a binary file
- uustat Command – uucp status inquiry and job control
- hostname Command – Show the system’s host name
- netstat Command – Displays network information and statistics
Process Management and Processes Commands
Basic process management commands:
- apt Command – For installing, updating, removing, and otherwise managing deb packages
- at Command – Execute commands at a later time
- batch Command – Schedule commands to be executed in a batch queue
- bg Command – Run jobs in the background
- fg Command – Run jobs in the foreground
- fuser Command – List process IDs of all processes that have one or more files open
- jobs Command – Display status of jobs in the current session
- kill Command – Terminate or signal processes
- nice Command – Invoke a utility with an altered nice value
- nohup Command – Invoke a utility immune to hangups
- pgrep Command – Find processes with the given name using pattern matching
- pkill Command – Kills processes with the given name using pattern matching
- ps Command – Report process status
- pstree Command – Display a tree of processes
- renice Command – Set nice values of running processes
- time Command – Time a simple command
- times Command – Write process times
- top Command – Real-time display of running processes
- trap Command – Trap signals
- uux Command – Remote command execution
- wait Command – Await process completion
- chroot Command – run a command or interactive shell using a specific directory as the root directory
Basic programming commands:
- make Command – Maintain, update, and regenerate groups of programs
Source Code Control System (SCCS) Command
Basic source code control system (sccs) commands:
- admin Command – Create and administer SCCS files
- delta Command – Make a delta (change) to an SCCS file
- get Command – Get a version of an SCCS file
- prs Command – Print an SCCS file
- rmdel Command – Remove a delta from an SCCS file
- sact Command – Print current SCCS file-editing activity
- sccs Command – Front end for the SCCS subsystem
- unget Command – Undo a previous get of an SCCS file
- val Command – Validate SCCS files
- what Command – Identify SCCS files
Basic shell programming commands:
- bash Command – The Bourne-again shell
- shopt Command – Control optional shell behavior
- break Command – Exit from for, while, or until loop
- continue Command – Continue from for, while, or until loop
- dot Command – Execute commands in the current environment
- echo Command – Write arguments to standard output
- eval Command – Construct command by concatenating arguments
- exec Command – Execute commands and open, close, or copy file descriptors
- exit Command – Cause the shell to exit
- false Command – Return false value
- logger Command – Log messages
- print Command – Print a file directly without using a Windows application that supports printing
- printf Command – Write formatted output
- sh Command – Shell, the standard command language interpreter
- shift Command – Shift positional parameters
- sleep Command – Suspend execution for an interval
- suspend Command – Suspend execution of the shell until it receives a continue signal
- tee Command – Duplicate standard input
- test Command – Evaluate expression
- true Command – Return true value
- command Command – Execute a simple command
- cut Command – Cut out selected fields of each line of a file
- expr Command – Evaluate arguments as an expression
- getopts Command – Parse utility options
- read Command – Read a line from standard input
- return Command – Return from a function
- xargs Command – Construct argument lists and invoke utility
System and System Administration Commands
Basic system and system administration commands:
- passwd Command – Set or change user password
- sar Command – System Activity Report
- who Command – Display who is on the system
Text Processing and Programming
Basic text processing and programming:
- awk Command – Pattern scanning and processing language
- diff Command – Compare two files
- ed Command – The standard text editor
- ex Command – Open text editor
- fold Command – Filter for folding lines
- gawk Command – Pattern scanning and processing language, GNU’s version of awk
- head Command – Copy the first part of files
- iconv Command – Codeset conversion
- less Command – Display files on a page-by-page basis
- more Command – Display files on a page-by-page basis
- paste Command – Merge corresponding or subsequent lines of files
- patch Command – Apply changes to files
- pr Command – Print files
- sed Command – Stream editor
- tail Command – Copy the last part of a file
- tr Command – Translate characters
- tsort Command – Topological sort
- vi Command – Screen-oriented (visual) display editor
- wc Command – Word, line, and byte or character count
- asa Command – Interpret carriage-control characters
- comm Command – Select or reject lines common to two files
- csplit Command – Split files based on context
- expand Command – Convert tabs to spaces
- join Command – Relational database operator
- lp Command – Send files to a printer
- nl Command – Line numbering filter
- sort Command – Sort, merge, or sequence check text files
- unexpand Command – Convert spaces to tabs
- uniq Command – Report or filter out repeated lines in a file
- zcat Command – Expand and concatenate data
- nano Command – Small text editor
Miscellenous (Misc) Commands
Miscellenous (misc) commands:
- alias Command – Define or display aliases
- ar Command – Create and maintain library archives
- bc Command – Arbitrary-precision arithmetic language
- cal Command – Print a calendar
- crontab Command – Schedule periodic background work
- date Command – Write the date and time
- env Command – List environment variables or invoke a command in a modified environment
- export Command – Set the export attribute for variables
- fc Command – Process the command history list
- fortune Command – Displays a random quotation
- gencat Command – Generate a formatted message catalog
- getconf Command – Get configuration values
- grep Command – Search text for a pattern
- groups Command – List groups a user belongs to
- hash Command – Remember or report utility locations
- id Command – Return user identity
- ipcrm Command – Remove a message queue, semaphore set, or shared memory segment identifier
- ipcs Command – Report interprocess communication facilities status
- locale Command – Get locale-specific information
- localedef Command – Define locale environment
- login Command – Begin sessions on a system
- logname Command – Return the user’s login name
- logout Command – End sessions on a system
- m4 Command – Macro processor
- mailx Command – Process messages
- man Command – Display system documentation
- mesg Command – Permit or deny messages
- newgrp Command – Change to a new group
- od Command – Dump files in various formats
- pax Command – Portable archive interchange
- readonly Command – Set the readonly attribute for variables
- seq Command – Print a sequence of numbers
- set Command – Set or unset options and positional parameters
- split Command – Split files into pieces
- stty Command – Set the options for a terminal
- tabs Command – Set terminal tabs
- talk Command – Talk to another user
- tput Command – Change terminal characteristics
- tty Command – Return user’s terminal name
- type Command – Displays how a name would be interpreted if used as a command
- ulimit Command – Set or report file size limit
- umask Command – Get or set the file mode creation mask
- unalias Command – Remove alias definitions
- uname Command – Return system name
- uncompress Command – Expand compressed data
- unset Command – Unset values and attributes of variables and functions
- write Command – Write to another user’s terminal
- datamash Command – performs basic numeric, textual and statistical operations on input textual data files
- mtail Command – extract metrics from application logs
- parallel Command – execute jobs in parallel (shell utility)
- rsync Command – synchronizing files and directories between two locations over a remote shell (command-line utility)
- stress Command – square-root function to force the CPUs to work hard
- readlink Command – print resolved symbolic links or canonical file names
- ts Command – adds a timestamp to the beginning of each line of input
- uptime Command – returns information about how long your system has been running together with the current time
- history Command – list all commands history used on a system
- zip Command – compress file
- unzip Command – uncompress file
- hostname Command – display the IP address of the remote machine
- useradd Command – add user
- userdel Command – delete user
- clear Command – clear all inputed commands, as if you just logged into terminal
- dir Command – computer file and directory listing
- groupadd Command – create new group account
- groupdel Command – delete existing group account
- last Command – show last logged-in user
- locate Command – search for directory
- ping Command – test ip address accesibility
- ss Command – dump socket statistics and displays information
- traceroute Command – determine the path between two connections
- whereis Command – locate the binary, source, and manual page files for a command
- which Command – identify the location of executables
- htop Command – monitor server’s processes in real time
- dc Command –